The Russian Genitive Case is used to show possession, or ownership of the object in the sentence.
Like all cases in the Russian language, the easiest way to determine how to use the genitive case is to ask the key questions associated with the case. So, in other words, when you are forming the sentence, first ask yourself the questions:
(1) Whom/what owns this? Or...
(2) What do I not have?
The answer to these questions will tell you which nouns require the Genitive case. When in the genitive case, nouns drop their 'regular' endings, and are replaced by the corresponding endings shown in the table below.
The table outlines the typical endings used, as well as the relevant endings that apply to any adjectives linked to the noun. Further, we have given some specific examples highlighting the word endings so you can see how the Genitive case works.